ZINGIBERALES – Tropical Gingers


Tropical gingers (Zingiberales) are an order of the monocotyledonous plants (Liliopsida). Their occurrence is purely tropical. There are many species, which are used as ornamental plants. The most important nutritional plants in this order are the bananas, while it also contains many important herbals and spices.

Mostly, these are perennial, herbaceous plants with rhizomes. Some species (for example bananas) form “pseudo-stems” that make them look like palm trees, even though these spruces do not develop into wood. Most of the big leaves have smooth edges, they are structured into lamen and stem, a characteristic that appears rather seldom with monocots. In contrast to the majority of monocots, the veins of the leaves do not run parallel, but they all spring along the main vein of the leaf. The large laminae in tropical rain forests are interpreted as an adaptation to the high humidity and low intensity of light. The blooms are cygomorphous and trifoliate. Mostly, part of the stamina is degenerate or reformed, so that only five or six fertile staminae can be found. Three carpels have grown into an inferior ovary. Source: wikipedia

Classification

To the order of the tropical gingers (Zingiberales) belong eight families with 92 genera and about 2111 species. The following classification applies for the Zingiberales:

Superorder

Superdivision
Spermatophyta Seed plants
Division
Magnoliophyta Flowering plants
Class
Liliopsida Monocuts
Class Commelinidae
Commelinids
Order
Zingibereales
Ginger order
Families
Cannaceae
Costaceae
Heliconiaceae
Lowiaceae
Maranthaceae
Musaceae
Strelitziaceae
Zingiberaceae
Canna family
-
Helikonia family
-
Arrow root family
Banana plants
Strelitzia family
Ginger family
Genera
   
Species
   

Summary of the Families of the Zingiberales

Costaceae: With four genera and 110 species, pantropical distribution:
Costus: with 90 species
Dimerocostus
Monocostus
Tapeinochilos

Canna Family (Cannaceae): with only one genus and about 19 species, only in the neotropis:

Canna (Indian Shot, Saka siri)

Heliconiaceae: with only one genus and 100 to 200 species:
Heliconia (Wild Plantain)

 Hanging Heliconias

Medium Heliconias

 Large Heliconias

XL Heliconias
Helikonien



Lowiaceae: with only one genus and 15 species, with a distribution from southern China to Borneo:
Orchidantha (syn. Lowia Scort., Protamomum Ridl., Wolfia Post & Kuntze)

Arrowroot Family (Maranthaceae): with 31 genera and 550 species, in the tropes, particularly Neotropis, not in Australia (selection):
Calathea: with 300 species.

Banana Plants (Museaceae): with two species and 35 genera:
Bananas (Musa)
Ensete

Strelitzia Family (Strelitziaceae): with three genera and seven species:
Strelitzia (Strelitzia)
Traveller’s Tree (Ravenala)
Phenakospermum

Ginger Family (Zingiberaceae): it is classified in four subfamilies with 46 to 52 genera and 1075 to 1300 species:
Alpinioideae
Siphonochiloideae W.J. Kresss: with only one genus and 15 species in Africa and Madagascar: + Siphonochilus
Tamijioideae W.J. Kress: with a single species: + Tamijia flagellaris: in Borneo
Zingiberoideae Hasskarl

Classification – Order of the Plants in General

The ‘order’ is a hierachical step in the biological classification. It is between class and family and between superorder (superordo) and suborder (subordo); under these, there is the stage of the infraorder (infraordo). In botanics, names of orders (if they are based on a family name) end in Latin on –ales. The classification in biology (taxonomy) is predominantly based on the works of Carl von Linné (Systema Naturae, 1735). It is the historically most important classification to designate the organisms, and it is clearly represented in the nomenclature of the classical classification (biology). Since 1753, for botanics (Linné, Species Plantarum) and 1758 for zoology (Linné, 10th edition of Systema Naturae) two-part names for species are used, a nomenclature that applies since then for all organisms.


Kingdom
Division
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
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